Overall, the quick outlook would hopefully have highlighted the alignment of the functions of management in different management theories.
Posted by Satyendra on Aug 1, in Management 1 comment Planning — A Management Function In the world of management, planning is a very important function since it is the first of the basic functions of management which are planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling.
It is often being thought that planning is the most fundamental of the managerial functions since all other functions stem from the planning function. Planning prepares organizations for tomorrow by assessing today what an organization wants to accomplish and how it will go about achieving that goal.
Through planning, management decides the best alternative among others to perform different managerial functions in order to achieve predetermined goals. Without setting a goal to be reached and lines of action to be followed, there is nothing to organize, to direct, to coordinate and to control in the organization.
However this should not lead one to hold the view that planning is an isolated activity required in the beginning only. On the other hand, it is a continuous Planning functions of management unending process to keep the organization on the path of progress while other management functions are also performed simultaneously.
It is a preparatory step and consists of chalking out an activity plan for doing the things in an orderly manner for the achievement of the desired targets and objectives. It is a mental predisposition to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guesses.
It is a detailed programme regarding future course of action. It is a systematic activity which determines why an action is needed, what is to done, who has to carry out the action, how it is to be done and when to be done.
It bridges the gap between where we are, and where we want to go. It makes possible things to occur which would not otherwise occur. Planning takes into consideration of available and prospective human and physical resources of the organization so as to get effective co-ordination, contribution as well as perfect adjustment.
It includes formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources.
Through the function of planning policies, programmes, procedures, budgeting and other related elements gets generated. There are several steps involved in the process of planning. These steps include i choosing of goals, ii identification of actions, iii allocation of responsibilities, iv reviewing the performanceand v making adjustment in the plan.
These steps are shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Steps in the process of planning Characteristics of planning Planning as the primary function — Planning is the primary function of the management. It lays the foundation for other functions. It serves as a guide for organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling.
All these other functions of management are performed within the framework of plans laid out which makes planning as the basic function of management. Establishment of objectives — Planning starts with the setting of goals and objectives to be achieved. These objectives provide nucleus to the planning process and a rationale for carrying out different activities besides indicating direction of efforts.
The objectives focus the attention of management on the end results to be achieved. To avoid the undertaken activities to be ineffective, the objectives are to be stated in a clear, precise and unambiguous language and in quantitative terms.
Only those objectives where quantitative terms are not feasible are to be specified in qualitative terms. Further the objectives are to be practical, acceptable, workable and achievable.
Establishment of assumptions — Assumptions are required for those variables which needed for during planning and which cannot be identified presently. They determines the shape of events in future. They serve as the basis of planning.
These assumptions in fact are norms which are to be followed during planning. Accurate assumptions decreases the probability of deviations from actual plan during the implementation of the plans. Planning assumptions can be for issues that are either internal or external to the organization.
Assumptions for internal issues are controllable and can be made with higher probability of accuracy whereas the assumptions on external issues are non- controllable and can only be imagined. Choice regarding the course of actions — Normally for the planning a number of course of actions are available.
It is necessary that each and every alternative course of action is evaluated by weighing its pros and cons in the light of resources available and requirements of the organization.
The merits, demerits as well as the consequences of each alternative course of actions is to be examined before the choice is eventually made. The best alternative is to be chosen only after objective and scientific evaluation of each alternative course of actions.
Help of various quantitative techniques is generally taken to judge the suitability of an alternative. Formulation of derivative plans — Derivative plans are the sub plans or secondary plans which help in the achievement of main plan.
These derivative plans are detailed plans and flow from the main plan. They are meant to support and expedite the achievement of main plan.Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization.
Roles performed by managers. Planning is the base function, as well as the foundation for management. Planning requires looking into and understanding the present state of the company or department and deciding where you want the company or department to be.
Management: Planning Function Planning is a major function of management. Planning may be the most important of all management functions. Planning involves a six-step process that assists an organization in setting goals and determining how to accomplish them best (Allen, ).
Fayol originally set forth five management functions, but management book authors have condensed them to four: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The fifth function was staffing. Planning. Watch video · The major functions that a manager completes can be categorized into four different functions known as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
For . Planning is the function of management that involves setting objectives and determining a course of action for achieving those objectives. Planning requires that managers be aware of environmental conditions facing their organization and forecast future conditions.